HPV is one of the most widespread viruses transmitted mainly through sexual contact.
There are over 40 types of HPV sexually transmitted, and only some of them have proven oncogenic potential and therefore these viral types belong to a separate group of high-risk viral types. Infection with high-risk types of HPV, known as carcinogens, is a necessary condition for the subsequent emergence and development of cancer of the cervix.
Other virus types are associated with benign or low-grade cervical cell change and / or genital warts are therefore involved, as representatives of the group of low-risk viral types.
The time between initial HPV infection and development of cervical cancer is usually decades. For the most part HPV infection symptoms. After the occurrence of an infection with HPV, 80% of healthy individuals manage to eliminate within 1-2 years. In other cases, we observe continuous presence of HPV and, if the virus which are infected belong to the risk group HPV, it is essential for developing cancer of the cervix.
Genital HPV infection is transmitted mainly through sexual transmission. Condom use as a protective device significantly reduces but does not eliminate the risk of infection, which is one of the reasons for the extremely broad Spread of the virus among young people (under 30-35 years). The sexual behavior of the partner and the individual immune response is essential for the risk of infection and the consequences of infection occurred.
Infection of the cervical epithelium with a high-risk HPV plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.
Cytological and histological studies provide any evidence for indirect probably an infection caused by HPV.
Therefore, a suspected infection with HPV further study is needed by DNA test that will unequivocally prove current infection with the virus.
In the establishment of an infection with HPV, it is desirable to determine the attachment of the virus to the appropriate virus group. In the case of an established infection with a virus of the high-risk group of HPV, determination of the particular virus type (by genotyping) is particularly relevant because it is relevant to the diagnosis, prognosis and the choice of a therapeutic method for the disease.
• Prevention (screening)
This type of cancer can be prevented through prevention and successfully treated if detected early.
Preventive examinations and tests are of great importance, in modern diagnostics combining cervical cytology (Pap test) with a DNA test to prove the presence of HPV in the cervix, increases reliability and informative value of prevention research.
The application of the HPV-DNA test as a screening method should be accompanied by the provision of detailed information on the patient’s high HPV infections to prevent anxiety and physiological distress, which may arise as a result of HPV diagnosis.